Analysis, Foreign Affairs, Military, Nuclear Weapons

Relationships Between Provocations and Exercises

CSIS Beyond Parallel datasets offer a unique collection of original databases on diplomacy, military exercises, deterrence, trade, and finance related to Korean unification. Through a comparison of datasets important insights can be gained about the relationship between events. This timeline provides a comparison of two different datasets collected by CSIS. Explore the relationships between provocations and exercises here.

Citation:
Victor Cha, “North Korean Provocations & US-ROK Military Exercises Dataset,” CSIS Beyond Parallel Original Datasets, http://beyondparallel.csis.org/timeline

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October 20, 2016

Intermediate-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea reportedly fired another Musudan missile from a location near Kusong. The launch came after a scheduled 2+2 meeting between U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, ROK Foreign Minister Yun Byung-se, U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter and ROK Minister of National Defense Han Min Koo. The failed launch also came hours before the 3rd presidential debate between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump.

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October 15, 2016

Intermediate-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea launched a presumed Musudan missile from a location near Kusong in the northwestern part of the country. U.S. and ROK military sources have stated that the missile launch was a failure.

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September 9, 2016

Nuclear Test

North Korea conducted its fifth nuclear test at the Punggye-ri nuclear test site. The test produced a 10 kiloton blast which experts assess is the strongest and most successful explosion out of all of North Korea’s five tests. Through a pronouncement on its state media, North Korea claimed to have successfully tested a nuclear warhead.

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September 5, 2016

Medium-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 3 Nodong ballistic missiles into the East Sea from Hwangju near the west coast. The missiles were launched just as world leaders gathered in Hangzhou, China for the G20 summit. The missiles reportedly flew around 600 miles (1000 km). Despite initial reports of Nodong missiles being fired other experts assessed that the launch was actually of long-range ER Scud missiles.

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August 22-September 2, 2016

Ulchi Freedom Guardian Exercises

U.S. and ROK military forces conducted UFG exercises with appoximately 25,000 U.S. troops and 50,000 South Korean soldiers. These computerized command-and-control exercises are designed to deter North Korea from acts of aggression, enhance the readiness of alliance forces, and maintain stability on the Korean peninsula.

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August 24, 2016

Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired a submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM) into the East Sea from a location near Sinpo. The missile, presumed to be a KN-11, reportedly flew about 300 miles and entered Japan’s air defense identification zone (ADIZ). According to South Korea’s Joint Chiefs of Staff, the missile launch appeared to show progress compared with previous tests.

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August 3, 2016

Medium-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea launched 2 Nodong missiles from South Hwanghae province on the western coast. The first missile exploded immediately after launch and the second was fired into the East Sea and travelled about 621 miles (1000km). The second missile reportedly landed in or near Japan’s exclusive economic zone and drew a strong response from Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe who called the launch a “grave threat.”

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July 19, 2016

Medium-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 3 Nodong ballistic missiles into the East Sea from the county of Hwangju in North Hwanghae province. The launches come 6 days after South Korea announced THAAD would be deployed in Seongju county. Two of the missiles reportedly flew 500 to 600 km.

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July 9, 2016

Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired a submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM), presumed to be a KN-11, from the east coast city of Sinpo. According to South Korea’s Joint Chiefs of Staff, the missile appears to have been successfully launched from a submarine but failed in the early stages of flight.

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June 22, 2016

Intermediate-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired two intermediate-range ballistic missiles from the east coast city of Wonsan. According to South Korean military sources, the first missile travelled about 93 miles and is believed to have been a failure. The second missile launched two hours later travelled about 250 miles. Both missiles appear to be Musudan and, if confirmed, would mark the 5th and 6th launches of that missile-type this year.

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May 31, 2016

Intermediate-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea conducted a failed missile launch, of what was believed to be a Musudan missile, from the eastern city of Wonsan. This was the 4th attempt at testing the Musudan in 2016.

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March 7-April 30, 2016

Foal Eagle Exercises

About 17,000 U.S. and over 300,000 ROK soldiers took part in the combined field training exercise Foal Eagle, making it the largest scale ever. The USS John C. Stennis, an aircraft carrier, also participated in the training exercises. This year’s exercises also featured the new OPLAN 5015 that reportedly included exercises for removing DPRK’s weapons of mass destruction and preparations for a preemptive strike.

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Foal Eagle Exercises

April 28, 2016

Intermediate-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea conducted a failed missile launch, of what was believed to be a Musudan missile, an intermediate-range ballistic missile.

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SKOREA-NKOREA-MILITARY-NUCLEAR-MISSILE

March 7-April 30, 2016

Foal Eagle Exercises

About 17,000 U.S. and over 300,000 ROK soldiers took part in the combined field training exercise Foal Eagle, making it the largest scale ever. The USS John C. Stennis, an aircraft carrier, also participated in the training exercises. This year’s exercises also featured the new OPLAN 5015 that reportedly included exercises for removing DPRK’s weapons of mass destruction and preparations for a preemptive strike.

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April 23, 2016

Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea test-launched a KN-11 submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM) from a Sinpo-class submarine in the East Sea. Though North Korea called it a succesful launch, the missile exploded after flying about 30km, well before it reached its normal trajectory.

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Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile

March 7-April 30, 2016

Foal Eagle Exercises

About 17,000 U.S. and over 300,000 ROK soldiers took part in the combined field training exercise Foal Eagle, making it the largest scale ever. The USS John C. Stennis, an aircraft carrier, also participated in the training exercises. This year’s exercises also featured the new OPLAN 5015 that reportedly included exercises for removing DPRK’s weapons of mass destruction and preparations for a preemptive strike.

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April 15, 2016

Intermediate-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea conducted a failed test-launch of a medium-range ballistic missile for the anniversary of Kim Il Sung’s birthday. The missile, believed to be a Musudan, exploded mid-air during the initial stages. This would be North Korea’s first attempt at test-launching a Musudan missile, if confirmed.

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March 7-April 30, 2016

Foal Eagle Exercises

About 17,000 U.S. and over 300,000 ROK soldiers took part in the combined field training exercise Foal Eagle, making it the largest scale ever. The USS John C. Stennis, an aircraft carrier, also participated in the training exercises. This year’s exercises also featured the new OPLAN 5015 that reportedly included exercises for removing DPRK’s weapons of mass destruction and preparations for a preemptive strike.

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April 6, 2016

Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea attempted to test-launch a ballistic missile from a Sinpo-class submarine in the East Sea. The test was halted due to malfunctions.

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March 7-April 30, 2016

Foal Eagle Exercises

About 17,000 U.S. and over 300,000 ROK soldiers took part in the combined field training exercise Foal Eagle, making it the largest scale ever. The USS John C. Stennis, an aircraft carrier, also participated in the training exercises. This year’s exercises also featured the new OPLAN 5015 that reportedly included exercises for removing DPRK’s weapons of mass destruction and preparations for a preemptive strike.

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April 1, 2016

Long-range Surface-to-Air Missile Launch

North Korea fired 5 surface-to-air missiles, presumed to be KN-06, from South Hamgyong Province into the East Sea.

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March 7-April 30, 2016

Foal Eagle Exercises

About 17,000 U.S. and over 300,000 ROK soldiers took part in the combined field training exercise Foal Eagle, making it the largest scale ever. The USS John C. Stennis, an aircraft carrier, also participated in the training exercises. This year’s exercises also featured the new OPLAN 5015 that reportedly included exercises for removing DPRK’s weapons of mass destruction and preparations for a preemptive strike.

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March 29, 2016

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired a short-range projectile from an area near Wonsan into the East Sea.

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March 7-April 30, 2016

Foal Eagle Exercises

About 17,000 U.S. and over 300,000 ROK soldiers took part in the combined field training exercise Foal Eagle, making it the largest scale ever. The USS John C. Stennis, an aircraft carrier, also participated in the training exercises. This year’s exercises also featured the new OPLAN 5015 that reportedly included exercises for removing DPRK’s weapons of mass destruction and preparations for a preemptive strike.

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March 21, 2016

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 5 short-range ballistic missiles from a location near Hamhung into the East Sea.

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March 7-April 30, 2016

Foal Eagle Exercises

About 17,000 U.S. and over 300,000 ROK soldiers took part in the combined field training exercise Foal Eagle, making it the largest scale ever. The USS John C. Stennis, an aircraft carrier, also participated in the training exercises. This year’s exercises also featured the new OPLAN 5015 that reportedly included exercises for removing DPRK’s weapons of mass destruction and preparations for a preemptive strike.

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March 7-18, 2016

Key Resolve Exercises

The U.S. and ROK militaries participated in Key Resolve, a command post exercise (CPX) with a focus on crisis management. The exercise, held along with the annual Foal Eagle Exercises, were the largest to date with a combined total of 317,000 ROK and U.S. troops. An aircraft carrier, the USS John C. Stenis, also participated.

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March 18, 2016

Medium-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 missiles from an area near Sukchon. The first missile, believed to be a Nodong, landed within the Japanese ADIZ in the East Sea. The second missile seems to have blown up mid-air.

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March 7-April 30, 2016

Foal Eagle Exercises

About 17,000 U.S. and over 300,000 ROK soldiers took part in the combined field training exercise Foal Eagle, making it the largest scale ever. The USS John C. Stennis, an aircraft carrier, also participated in the training exercises. This year’s exercises also featured the new OPLAN 5015 that reportedly included exercises for removing DPRK’s weapons of mass destruction and preparations for a preemptive strike.

Read More

March 7-18, 2016

Key Resolve Exercises

The U.S. and ROK militaries participated in Key Resolve, a command post exercise (CPX) with a focus on crisis management. The exercise, held along with the annual Foal Eagle Exercises, were the largest to date with a combined total of 317,000 ROK and U.S. troops. An aircraft carrier, the USS John C. Stenis, also participated.

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March 10, 2016

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea launched 2 missiles, likely Scuds, into the East Sea. They were launched from Hwangju County in North Hwanghae Province.

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March 3, 2016

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 6 short-range projectiles into the East Sea from a location near Wonsan. They were presumed to be short-range missiles such as KN-01, or missiles fired from a 300-millimeter multiple launch rocket system.

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February 7, 2016

Satellite Launch

Controversy erupted when the North Koreans launched a rocket into orbit, the earth observation satellite Kwangmyongsong-4, which the international community viewed as a testing of its inter-continential ballistic missile capabilities.

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January 6, 2016

Nuclear Test

North Korea conducted its fourth nuclear test at the Punggye-ri nuclear test site. North Korea claimed it had successfully tested a hydrogen bomb.

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August 17-28, 2015

Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercises

The Ulchi-Freedom Guardian exercise, which involves all services, is designed to enhance Combined Forces Command (CFC) readiness, protect the region, and maintain stability on the Korean peninsula. About 80,000 U.S. and ROK soldiers took part in UFG 15.

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Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercises

August 20, 2015

DMZ Exchange of Fire

North and South Korea exchanged artillery fire near Yeoncheon, northwest of Seoul.

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August 4, 2015

Land Mine Explosion

Three landmines, presumably buried by the North Koreans, exploded South of the DMZ, injuring two South Korean soldiers on patrol. The incident resulted in no deaths, but one solder needed his leg amputated, the other both.

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land mind explosion

June 14, 2015

Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Launch

North Korea fired 3 KN-01 missiles from a site near Wonsan.

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May 9, 2015

Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea claimed to have successfully test-fired a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). However, multiple sources concur that the photographs North Korea released had been doctored, and concluded that their SLBM capabilities were as of yet, still unrealized.

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March 2-April 24, 2015

Foal Eagle Exercises

Foal Eagle (FE) exercise was held with 12,300 U.S. soldiers and over 210,000 ROK soldiers participating. FE 15 involved the participation of a littoral combat ship (LCS), the USS Fort Worth for the 1st time in exercises history.

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Foal Eagle Exercises

April 3, 2015

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea test-fired 4 short-range ballistic missiles into the West Sea from Dongchang-ri, North Pyongan Province. They were likely KN-02 missiles.

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March 2-April 24, 2015

Foal Eagle Exercises

Foal Eagle (FE) exercise was held with 12,300 U.S. soldiers and over 210,000 ROK soldiers participating. FE 15 involved the participation of a littoral combat ship (LCS), the USS Fort Worth for the 1st time in exercises history.

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April 2, 2015

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 4 short-range ballistic missiles, presumably KN-02 from Dongchang-ri in the north of the country. ROK Joint Chief of Staff mentioned in its statement the missiles had a range of about 140 km.

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March 2-April 24, 2015

Foal Eagle Exercises

Foal Eagle (FE) exercise was held with 12,300 U.S. soldiers and over 210,000 ROK soldiers participating. FE 15 involved the participation of a littoral combat ship (LCS), the USS Fort Worth for the 1st time in exercises history.

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March 2-March 13, 2015

Key Resolve Exercises

Key Resolve (KR) 2015 involved computer simulations that allowed senior U.S. and ROK leaders to exercise their decision-making capabilities. Military commanders were also trained in combined planning, military intelligence, logistics and command and control operations. About 12,300 U.S. and over 210,000 ROK soldiers participated in KR 15.

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Key Resolve Exercises

March 2, 2015

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 short-range ballistic missiles into the East Sea from the western port city of Nampo. The missiles are presumed to be Scud-C based on their range, which was estimated to be 490 km.

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February 8, 2015

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 5 short-range ballistic missiles from a location near Wonsan into the East Sea.

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February 7, 2015

Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Launch

North Korea test-fired an anti-ship cruise missile that resembles the Russian KH-35 missile. It was fired from a Korean People’s Navy (KPN) East Sea Fleet vessel.

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October 19, 2014

DMZ Exchange of Fire

South Korea fired warning shots towards 10 North Korean soldiers who were approaching the military demarcation line (MDL) in Paju after broadcasting warning messages. The North Koreans fired back, to which the South Koreans also returned fire.

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October 10, 2014

DMZ Exchange of Fire

South and North Korea exchanged fire across their border after a group of South Korean activists had sent leaflets flying into the North from the border town of Yeoncheon.

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exchange of fire

October 7, 2014

NLL Exchange of Fire

North and South Korean patrol boats briefly exchanged fire near the Northern Limit Line (NLL) in the Yellow Sea following the North Korean vessel’s violation of the NLL border.

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August 18-29, 2014

Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercises

The 2014 Ulchi -Freedom Guardian exercises carried out by the U.S. and ROK militaries involved more than 30,000 U.S. and 50,000 ROK soldiers.

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Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercises

July 26, 2014

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired a Scud missile into the East Sea, on the eve of the anniversary of the signing of the armistice. The missile was launched from Jangsan Cape, in South Hwanghae Province.

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July 13, 2014

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 Scud missiles into the East Sea. They were launched from near the border city of Kaesong, about 20 km from the military demarcation line (MDL).

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July 9, 2014

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea launched 2 Scud missiles from Hwanghae province in a northeasterly direction. The missiles landed in the East Sea.

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June 29, 2014

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 Scud missiles into the East Sea, 4 days before President Xi Jinping’s visit to South Korea.

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June 26, 2014

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 3 short-range missiles from a location near Wonsan into the East Sea. North Korea claimed they were testing newly developed precision guided missiles.

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May 22, 2014

NLL Exchange of Fire

North Korea fired artillery near a South Korean warship on patrol near the Northern Limit Line. The South Korean vessel was not hit, and responded by firing several shells into North Korean waters near a North Korean patrol boat.

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February 24-April 18, 2014

Foal Eagle Exercises

The 2014 Foal Eagle exercise involved about 7,500 U.S. soldiers and a combined total of 200,000 ROK soldiers. The Arleigh-Burke class guided-missile destroyer USS Curtis Wilbur also participated in the U.S.-ROK joint military exercises.

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Foal Eagle Exercises

March 31, 2014

NLL Exchange of Fire

North Korea held a live-fire exercise near the Northern Limit Line (NLL), after sending out a no-sail zone warning. South Korea responded by firing rounds from K-9 self-propelled howitzers as several artillery shells from the North fell south of the NLL.

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exchange of fire

February 24-April 18, 2014

Foal Eagle Exercises

The 2014 Foal Eagle exercise involved about 7,500 U.S. soldiers and a combined total of 200,000 ROK soldiers. The Arleigh-Burke class guided-missile destroyer USS Curtis Wilbur also participated in the U.S.-ROK joint military exercises.

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March 26, 2014

Medium-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 Nodong missiles from Sukchon, into the East Sea, its first tests of the Nodong since 2009. It is also the four-year anniversary since the sinking of the Cheonan, and the first time President Park Geun-hye and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe met since taking office, for a trilateral meeting with the U.S. on the sidelines of the nuclear security summit in Hague.

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February 24-April 18, 2014

Foal Eagle Exercises

The 2014 Foal Eagle exercise involved about 7,500 U.S. soldiers and a combined total of 200,000 ROK soldiers. The Arleigh-Burke class guided-missile destroyer USS Curtis Wilbur also participated in the U.S.-ROK joint military exercises.

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March 23, 2014

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea test-fired 16 short-range Free Rocket Over Ground (FROG) missiles, from Wonsan into the East Sea.

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February 24-April 18, 2014

Foal Eagle Exercises

The 2014 Foal Eagle exercise involved about 7,500 U.S. soldiers and a combined total of 200,000 ROK soldiers. The Arleigh-Burke class guided-missile destroyer USS Curtis Wilbur also participated in the U.S.-ROK joint military exercises.

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March 22, 2014

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea launched 30 short-range missiles into the East Sea from Wonsan. As with the March 16 test-launches, North Korea failed to send out navigational warning to ships and aircrafts in the area.

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February 24-April 18, 2014

Foal Eagle Exercises

The 2014 Foal Eagle exercise involved about 7,500 U.S. soldiers and a combined total of 200,000 ROK soldiers. The Arleigh-Burke class guided-missile destroyer USS Curtis Wilbur also participated in the U.S.-ROK joint military exercises.

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March 16, 2014

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea launched 25 short-range missiles on March 16. The missiles, appeared to be Free Rocket Over Ground (FROG), were launched from Wonsan and landed in the East Sea after traveling approximately 70 km.

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February 24-April 18, 2014

Foal Eagle Exercises

The 2014 Foal Eagle exercise involved about 7,500 U.S. soldiers and a combined total of 200,000 ROK soldiers. The Arleigh-Burke class guided-missile destroyer USS Curtis Wilbur also participated in the U.S.-ROK joint military exercises.

Read More

February 24-April 18, 2014

Key Resolve Exercises

The U.S. and ROK militaries conducted Key Resolve exercises to improve combined force operational capabilities, coordination, and deployment of U.S. reinforcement forces. About 5,200 U.S. soldiers and 10,000 ROK soldiers participated in KR 14.

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March 3, 2014

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 short-range missiles, one from Gitdaeryeong and the other from Wonsan, into a northeasterly direction. The missiles were Scud-class, and landed in Japan’s air defense identification zone (ADIZ). They landed 400-500 km northwest of Wajima, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.

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February 24-April 18, 2014

Foal Eagle Exercises

The 2014 Foal Eagle exercise involved about 7,500 U.S. soldiers and a combined total of 200,000 ROK soldiers. The Arleigh-Burke class guided-missile destroyer USS Curtis Wilbur also participated in the U.S.-ROK joint military exercises.

Read More

February 24-April 18, 2014

Key Resolve Exercises

The U.S. and ROK militaries conducted Key Resolve exercises to improve combined force operational capabilities, coordination, and deployment of U.S. reinforcement forces. About 5,200 U.S. soldiers and 10,000 ROK soldiers participated in KR 14.

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February 27, 2014

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 4 short-range ballistic missiles, likely Scuds, from its Gitdaeryeong area on the North’s southeastern coast, into the East Sea.

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August 19-30, 2013

Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercises

Ulchi-Freedom Guardian, computerized command-and-control exercises carried out by the U.S. and ROK militaries, involved about 30,000 U.S. and 50,000 ROK soldiers in 2013.

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Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercises

August 29, 2013

Nuclear Fuel Reactor Operation

Operation of the second nuclear reactor in Yongbyon started.

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May 20, 2013

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 short-range missiles into the East Sea. The projectiles fired are thought to be KN-02 short-range missiles or 300mm artillery rockets.

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May 19, 2013

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired a short-range missile into the East Sea.

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May 18, 2013

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea fired 3 short-range missiles into the East Sea, two in the morning and another in the afternoon. The missiles launched may be modified anti-ship missiles or the KN-02 short-range ballistic missiles that has a range of 120 km.

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March 1-April 30, 2013

Foal Eagle Exercises

Exercise Foal Eagle 2013 was held with about 10,000 U.S. soldiers and a combined tital of 210,000 ROK soldiers.

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Foal Eagle Exercises

April 2, 2013

Nuclear Fuel Reactor Operation

North Korea announced it would restart the Yongbyon 5MWe nuclear reactor for plutonium production. Satellite imagery from March 2013 had indicated that North Korea had started connecting the reactor’s secondary cooling system to the pump house adjacent to the experimental light water reactor.

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March 11-21, 2013

Key Resolve Exercises

Key Resolve exercises were carried out by the U.S. and ROK militaries with about 3,500 U.S. soldiers and 10,000 ROK soldiers participating in KR 13. This was the first year that KR was led by the ROK Joint Chiefs of Staff, not the Combined Forces Command (CFC).

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Key Resolve Exercises

February 12, 2013

Nuclear Test

North Korea conducted the third underground nuclear test at Punggye-ri nuclear test site.

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December 12, 2012

Satellite Launch

North Korea launched a Kwangmyongsong satellite (Unha-3 rocket) and claimed to have successfully placed it into orbit. Rocket was launched from the Dongchang-ri launch site towards the South.

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August 13-30, 2012

Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercises

The U.S. and ROK militaries carried out Ulchi-Freedom Guardian exercises to improve combined planning, military intelligence, logistics and command and control operations.

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Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercise

March 1-April 30, 2012

Foal Eagle Exercises

Foal Eagle exercises were held by the U.S. and ROK militaries in conjunction with Key Resolve exercises. About 11,000 U.S. soldiers and 200,000 ROK soldiers participated in KR/FE 12.

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April 13, 2012

Failed Satellite Launch

North Korea attempted to launch a Unha-3 rocket, but it broke apart 81 seconds into flight, then fell into the ocean. North Korea later admitted its failure.

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March 1-April 30, 2012

Foal Eagle Exercises

Foal Eagle exercises were held by the U.S. and ROK militaries in conjunction with Key Resolve exercises. About 11,000 U.S. soldiers and 200,000 ROK soldiers participated in KR/FE 12.

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March 29, 2012

Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 KN-01 short-range anti-ship cruise missiles from its west coast in North Pyongan Province.

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February 27- March 9, 2012

Key Resolve Exercises

Key Resolve is a command post exercise (CPX) with a focus on crisis management that includes a peninsula-wide computer simulation to help improve combined force’s operation capabilities, coordination, and execution of the deployment of U.S. reinforcement forces. About 2,000 U.S. soldiers and 10,000 ROK soldiers participated in KR 12.

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Key Resolve Exercises

August 16-26, 2011

Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercises

The U.S. and ROK militaries conducted the Ulchi-Freedom Guardian exercise. More than 530,000 troops from the U.S., the ROK, and seven United Nations Command sending state nations took part in UFG 11.

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June 8, 2011

Long-range Surface-to-Air Missile Launch

North Korea fired a KN-06 surface-to-air missile from North Pyongan Province into the Yellow Sea.

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February 28 – March 31, 2011

Foal Eagle Exercises

Foal Eagle, a combined field training exercise (FTX), were held with Combined Forces Command (CFC) and USFK component commands (ground, air, naval, and special operations). About 12,800 U.S. soldiers and 200,000 ROK soldiers participated in KR/FE 11.

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foal eagle exercises

February 28 – March 10, 2011

Key Resolve Exercises

About 2,300 U.S. soldiers and more than 10,000 ROK soldiers participated in the Key Resolve 11 combined military exercise.

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November 23, 2010

Shelling of Yeonpyeong Island

North Korea fired 170 artillery shots at a ROK Marine detachment and civilian residences on Yeonpyeong Island near the Northern Limit Line in the West Sea. Two ROK Marines and two civilians were killed, while 16 Marines and other civilians were injured. A total of 133 buildings on the island were damaged as a result of the attack.

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Shelling of Yeonpyeong Island

November 11, 2010

Uranium Enrichment Program Disclosure

North Korea disclosed a uranium enrichment facility to Dr. Sigfried Hecker, a U.S. nuclear specialist at Stanford University

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August 16 – 26, 2010

Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercises

Ulchi-Freedom Guardian is a computerized command-and-control exercise led by the Combined Forces Command (CFC) that involves computer simulations to allow U.S. and ROK senior leaders to exercise their decision-making capabilities and train military commanders in combined planning, military intelligence, logistics and command and control operations. More than 27,000 U.S. and 500,000 ROK soldiers took part in UFG 2010.

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August 9, 2010

Artillery Fire

North Korea fired artillery rounds near NLL.

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March 26, 2010

Sinking of the ROKS Cheonan

The ROK Navy corvette Cheonan sank in the Yellow Sea just south of the Northern Limit Line near Baengnyeong Island after an explosion in the ship’s stern ripped it in two. Of the 104 South Korean sailors on board, 58 were rescued; 46 are dead or remain missing. The explosion was later determined by an international investigation to have been caused by a North Korean torpedo.

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March 8 – 18, 2010

Key Resolve/Foal Eagle Exercises

Key Resolve, a command post exercise (CPX) with a focus on crisis management, was carried out in conjunction with Foal Eagle, a U.S.-ROK combined field training exercise involving Combined Forces Command (CFC) and USFK component commands. Approximately 18,000 U.S. soldiers participated in KR/FE 10.

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Key Resolve/Foal Eagle Exercises

January 31, 2010

No-Sail Zone Declared

North Korea announced 5 additional no-sail zones from January 31 to February 2.

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January 29, 2010

Artillery Fire

North Korea fired artillery rounds near NLL.

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January 28, 2010

Artillery Fire

North Korea fired artillery rounds near NLL.

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January 27, 2010

Artillery Fire

North Korea fired about 30 artillery rounds into the West Sea toward NLL. South Korea immediately responded with 100 warning shots from a marine base near the sea border. North Korea later claimed the firing had been part of an annual military drill and firing would continue.

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January 26, 2010

No-Sail Zone Declared

North Korea declared a no-sail zone in the West Sea from January 25 to March 29.

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November 10, 2009

Daecheong Naval Campaign

North Korean patrol boats aimed shots at an area located at the Northern Limit Line (NLL) in the West Sea near Daecheong Island, with one of the North Korean patrol boats crossing the NLL. The patrol boat fired 50 rounds at ROK Navy vessels, and was severely damaged after retaliation from the ROK’s patrol killer mediums (PKMs). One North Korean sailor was killed and three others injured.

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Daecheong Naval Campaign

October 12, 2009

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

5 short-range missiles, reportedly surface-to-surface KN-02 missiles, were fired into the East Sea from its eastern coast.

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August 17 – 28, 2009

Ulchi-Freedom Guardian Exercises

Ulchi-Freedom Guardian (UFG) exercises were conducted with the U.S. and ROK militaries. About 10,000 U.S. soldiers and 56,000 ROK soldiers participated in UFG 09.

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Key Resolve/Foal Eagle Exercises

July 30, 2009

Fishing Boat Seizure at NLL

North Korean patrol boat captured South Korean fishing vessel Yeonan 800, with 4 crew members for crossing the Northern Limit Line (NLL).

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July 4, 2009

Medium-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea launched 5 Scud missiles and 2 Nodong missiles from Gitdaeryeong, Kangwon Province.

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July 2, 2009

Short-range Missile Launch

North Korea test-fired 4 surface-to-ship missiles from Sinsang-ri, Hambuk Province.

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May 29, 2009

Short-range Missile Launch

North Korea launched a surface-to-air missile.

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May 27, 2009

Short-range Missile Launch

North Korea test-fired 2 short-range missiles.

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May 26, 2009

Short-range Missile Launch

North Korea launched 3 surface-to-ship missiles and a surface-to-air missile.

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May 25, 2009

Nuclear Test / Short-range Missile Launch

North Korea conducted its second nuclear test at the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site, located in Kilju County, North Hamgyong Province. The explosion occured underground and the explosive yield was only a few kilotons. It also attempted a short-range missile launch.

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April 05, 2009

Satellite Launch

North Korea launched the Kwangmyongsong-2 satellite (Unha-2 ICBM) but the test is deemed a failure after the entire payload exploded mid-air and crashed into the Pacific Ocean.

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March 9 – 20, 2009

Key Resolve/Foal Eagle Exercises

Approximately 18,000 U.S. soldiers participated in Key Resolve/Foal Eagle 09.

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Key Resolve/Foal Eagle Exercises

October 7, 2008

Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 short-range anti-ship cruise missiles into the Yellow Sea, likely KN-01.

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August 18 – 22, 2008

Ulchi-Focus Guardian Exercises

The first time Ulchi-Focus Guardian exercises were held after its name was changed from Ulchi Focus Lens (UFL). This was also the first time the ROK military took the leading role in the exercise’s 34-year history. UFG is a computerized command-and-control exercise led by the Combined Forces Command (CFC) that involves computer simulations to allow U.S. and ROK senior leaders to exercise their decision-making capabilities and train military commanders in combined planning, military intelligence, logistics and command and control operations.

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Ulchi-Focus Guardian Exercises

May 28, 2008

Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Launch

North Korea test-fired 3 short-range missiles, believed to be either P-20 Styx or SY-1 anti-ship cruise missiles, from its west coast into the West Sea.

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March 30, 2008

Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Launch

North Korea fired 3 short-range ballistic missiles, believed to be Styx missiles, into the West Sea. Two out of three reportedly misfired.

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March 2 – 7, 2008

Key Resolve/Foal Eagle Exercises

This is the first time the Key Resolve/Foal Eagle Exercises were held after a name change from RSOI/Foal Eagle in 2007. Key Resolve is a command post exercise (CPX) that trains staff instead of field units, unlike RSOI, and with a focus on crisis management that includes a peninsula-wide computer simulation to help improve combined force’s operation capabilities, coordination, and execution of the deployment of U.S. reinforcement forces. Foal Eagle is a U.S.-ROK combined field training exerise (FTX). The aircraft carrier USS Nimitz participated in the 2008 KR/FE.

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Key Resolve/Foal Eagle Exercises

August 20 – 31, 2007

Ulchi-Focus Lens Exercises

UlchI-Focus Lens (UFL) is a computerized command-and-control exercise led by the Combined Forces Command (CFC) designed to evaluate and improve combined and joint coordination, procedures, plans and systems for conducting operations criticial to the defense of the Korean Peninsula. About 10,000 U.S troops participated in UFL 07.

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June 27, 2007

Short-range Ballistic Missile Launch

North Korea launched 3 KN-02 SRBMs into the East Sea from the East coast.

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June 7, 2007

Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 KN-01 short-range anti-ship cruise missiles from its West coast.

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May 25, 2007

Short-range Missile Launch

North Korea fired surface-to-ship missiles from both the East and West coast.

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March 25 – 31, 2007

RSOI/Foal Eagle Exercises

Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration (RSOI) and Foal Eagle (FE) are combined/joint exercise designed to enhance overall readiness and alliance building. FE is a combined field training exerise (FTX) with a series of several joint and combined field training operations conducted by Combined Forces Command (CFC) and USFK component commands (ground, air, naval, and special operations). The aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan participated in FE 07.

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RSOI/Foal Eagle Exercises

October 9, 2006

Nuclear Test

North Korea conducted the first nuclear weapons test at the underground facility in Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site, located in Kilju County, North Hamgyong Province. The explosion yield was less than a kiloton.

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August 21 – September 1, 2006

Ulchi-Focus Lens Exercises

The U.S. and ROK militaries carried out UlchI-Focus Lens exercises in 2006 with about 10,000 U.S troops participating.

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Ulchi-Focus Lens Exercises

July 4, 2006

Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile/Short-Range Missile Launches

North Korea conducted three launches with a total of 7 missiles, including a failed-test of the Taepodong-2 ICBM, Nodong MRBMs, and Scud SRBMs. The Taepodong-2 was launched from the Tonghae test facility, and the latter from Gitdaeryeong Missile Test Site.

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Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile

March 24 – 31, 2006

RSOI/Foal Eagle Exercises

Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration (RSOI) and Foal Eagle (FE) exercises were held to improve alliance capabilities and coordination. About 70 U.S. and ROK Navy ships and more than 100 aircraft participated in FE 06.

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RSOI/Foal Eagle Exercises

March 7, 2006

Short-range Missile Launch

North Korea fired 2 short-range missiles.

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August 22 – September 2, 2005

Ulchi-Focus Lens Exercises

UlchI-Focus Lens (UFL) is a computerized command-and-control exercise led by the Combined Forces Command (CFC) designed to evaluate and improve combined and joint coordination, procedures, plans and systems for conducting operations criticial to the defense of the Korean Peninsula.

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May 1, 2005

Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Launch

North Korea launched a KN-01 short-range anti-ship cruise missile into the East Sea.

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March 19 – 25, 2005

RSOI/Foal Eagle Exercises

Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration (RSOI) and Foal Eagle (FE) are combined/joint exercise designed to enhance overall readiness and alliance building. FE is a combined field training exerise (FTX) with a series of several joint and combined field training operations conducted by Combined Forces Command (CFC) and USFK component commands (ground, air, naval, and special operations).

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RSOI/Foal Eagle Exercises



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